Bacteria with a thick, waxy coat that makes them more resistant to chemical germicides than other types of vegetative bacteria. Tuberculosis bacillus is a Mycobacterium.

The study of fungi (f?n j?) and the diseases they cause.

Fungal diseases.

Clearance mechanism in the airways that moves bronchial mucus upward toward the oropharynx; propulsion of mucus is provided by the rhythmic beating action of cilia, which contact, stretch and push forward bronchial mucus, thus overcoming its natural viscosity. SYN: ciliary transport mechanism. Once in the oropharynx, mucus may be swallowed or sneezed or coughed out. SEE ciliary transport mechanism, oropharynx.

Whitish, fatty material that covers most long nerve fibers; serves as an insulator and provides protection.

Inflammation of a mucous membrane; orally, results in increased oropharyngeal colonization with respiratory pathogens and oral lesions; common causes include: age, medication, chemotherapy, poor oral care or illness.

Death of heart tissue that results when an area of the heart does not receive oxygen or becomes ischemic.

Complex fluid composed of water, glycoprotein, carbohydrates, lipids, DNA, and cellular debris. Gel phase – the relatively viscous and elastic layer at the luminal surface of the airways. Sol phase – the thinner, watery layer that contacts the beating cilia of the epithelial lining cells and carries the gel phase. Mucus captures dust debris, bacteria, chemicals by trapping them like fly paper to be swallowed, sneezed, or coughed out for removal. Also provides moisture and physical protection for all mucosal tissues.

Intermediate layer of deepest (transversospinales) muscles of back; origin, from the sacrum, sacroiliac ligament, mammillary processes of the lumbar vertebrae, transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae, and articular processes of last four cervical vertebrae; insertion, into the spinous processes of all the vertebrae up to and including the axis; action, rotates vertebral column; nerve supply, dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves. Syn: musculus multifidus spinae, musculus multifidus TA.

Blood clot that is attached to the blood vessel or heart by one side of the clot.